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初中英语语法知识难点大全

作者:tt    来源:学大教育网    时间:2018-08-02 15:34

初中英语语法知识难点大全
        (一) 形容词和副词
  I. 要点
  A. 形容词
  1、 形容词的用法
  形容词是用来修饰、描绘名词的,通常在句中作定语、表语或宾补,有时还可作状语。如:
  He is honest and hardworking.
  某些形容词与定冠词连用表示一类人作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。如:
  The rich and the poor live in different parts of the city.
  多个形容词作定语修饰名词的顺序:
  冠词+序数词+基数词+性质状态(描述性)+形状大小+新旧老少+颜色+国籍+材料+名词。如:
  the second five interesting big new red Chinese wall papers.
  2、 形容词比较等级的形式
  (1) 规则形式
  一般说来,单音节词及少数双音节词在后加-er; --est 来构成比较级和最高级;其他双音节词及多音节词在前加more, most.如:great-greater-greatest
  (2) 不规则形式
  good (well)-better-best;bad (ill)-worse-worst;many (much)-more-most;little-less-least
  (3) 形容词比较等级的用法
  ①表示两者的比较,用形容词的比较级+than. 如:
  He is cleverer than the other boys.
  ②表示两者以上的比较,用"the +形容词最高级(+名词)+of(in) …"如:He is the cleverest boy in his class.
  ③表示两者是同等程度,用"as +形容词原级+as". 如:I have as many books as you.
  ④ 越… 越…
  例如:The more I learn, the happier I am.
  ⑤ You can never be too careful. 越小心越好;又如:You can never praise the teacher too highly.你怎么赞扬这个老师也不过分。
  ⑥ I have never spent a more worrying day.  那一天是最令我担心的一天。
  ⑦ My English is no better than yours.  我的英语和你的英语都不怎么样。
  B.副词
  1、 副词的种类
  (1) 时间副词 如:ago, before, already, just, now, early, late, finally, tomorrow等
  (2) 地点副词 如:here, there, near, around, in, out, up, down, back, away, outside等。
  (3) 方式副词 如:carefully, angrily, badly, calmly, loudly, quickly, politely, nervously等。
  (4) 程度副词 如:almost, nearly, much, greatly, a bit, a little, hardly, so, very等。
  2、 副词比较等级的用法
  其用法与形容词相似,只是副词最高级前可省略定冠词。如:
  Of all the boys he sings (the) most beautifully.
  3、 某些副词在用法上的区别
  (1) already, yet, still
  already表示某事物已经发生,主要用于肯定句;yet表示期待某事发生,主要用于否定句和疑问句;still表示某事还在进行,主要用于肯定句和疑问句,有时也可用于否定句。如:We've already watched that film.
I haven't finished my homework yet.
He still works until late every night.
  (2) too, as well, also, either
  too, as well和 also用于肯定句和疑问句,too和as well多用于口语,一般放在句末,而also多用于书面语,一般放在句中与动词连用。either用于否定句和否定的疑问句,往往放在句末。如:He went there too.
  (3) hard, hardly
  hardly意为"几乎"与hard在词义上完全不同。如:
  I work hard every day.
  I can hardly remember that.
  (4) late, lately
  lately意为"最近、近来",late意为"晚、迟"。如:
  He never comes late.
  Have you been to the museum lately?
  (二) 介词
  I. 要点
  1、介词和种类
  (1) 简单介词,常用的有at, in, on, about, across, before, beside, for , to, without等。
  (2) 复合介词,如by means of, along with, because of, in front of, instead of等。
  2、介词和其他词类的习惯搭配关系
  (1) 和动词的搭配,如agree with, ask for, belong to, break away from, care about等。
  (2) 和形容词的搭配,如afraid of, angry with, different from, good at
  (3) 和名词的搭配,如answer to , key to, reason for, cause of, visit to等.
  3、介词短语可以有自己的修饰语,这种修饰语通常有right, just, badly, all, well, directly, completely等少数几个副词。如:
  He came right after dinner.
  He lives directly opposite the school.
  4、 某些介词的意义与用法举例
  (1) at, on, in(表时间)
  表示时间点用at,如at four o'clock, at midnight等;表示不确定的时间或短期假日也用at,如at that time, at Christmas等。
  指某天用on, 如on Monday, on the end of November, 指某天的朝夕用on,如on Friday morning, on the afternoon of September lst等。
  指长于或短于一天的时段用in,如in the afternoon, in February, in Summer, in 1999等。
  (2) between, among(表位置)
  between仅用于二者之间,但说三者或三者以上中的每两个之间的相互关系时,也用between, 如
  I'm sitting between Tom and Alice.
  The village lies between three hills.
  among用于三者或三者以上之间。如:He is the best among the students.
  (3) beside, besides
  beside意为"在…旁边",而besides意为"除…之外"。如:
  He sat beside me.
  What do you want besides this?
  (4)in the tree, on the tree
  in the tree 指动物或人在树上,而on the tree 指果实、树叶长在树上
  (5)on the way, in the way, by the way, in this way
  on the way 指在路上 in the way 指挡道
  by the way 指顺便问一句 in this way 用这样的方法
  (6)in the corner, at the corner
  in the corner 指在拐角内 at the corner 指在拐角外
  (7)in the morning, on the morning
  in the morning 是一般说法 on the morning 特指某一天的早晨
  (8)by bus, on the bus
  by bus 是一般说法 on the bus 特指乘某一辆车
  (三) 连词
  I. 要点
  1、 连词的种类
  (1) 并列连词用来连接并列关系的词、短语或分句,如and, for, or, both…and, either…or, neither…nor等。
  (2) 从属连词用来引导从句,如that, if, whether, when, after, as soon as等。
  除了从属连词(引导状语从句)外,还有其它可以用来引导从句的词类。它们是连接代词和连接副词(引导名词性从句),关系代词和关系副词(引导定语从句)。
  2、 常用连词举例
  (1)and 和,并且
  They drank and sang all night.
  (2) both…and 和, 既…也…
  Both my parents and I went there.
  (3) but 但是,而
  I'm sad, but he is happy.
  (4) either…or 或…或…, 要么…要么…
  Either you're wrong, or I am.
  (5) for因为
  I asked him to stay, for I had something to tell him.
  (6) however 然而,可是
  Af first, he didn't want to go there. Later, however, he decided to go.
  (7) neither…nor 既不…也不
  Neither my parents nor my aunt agrees with you.
  (8) not only…but(also) 不但…而且…
  He not only sings well, but also dances well.
  (9) or 或者,否则
  Hurry up, or you'll be late.
  (10) so 因此,所以
  It's getting late, so I must go.
  (11) although 虽然
  Although it was late, they went on working.
  (12) as soon as 一 …就
  I'll tell him as soon as I see him.
  (13) because 因为
  He didn't go to school, because he was ill.
  (14)unless 除非,如果不
  I won't go unless it is fine tomorrow.
  (15)until 直到…
  He didn't leave until eleven. (瞬间动词用于not… until 结构)
  He stayed there until eleven.
  (16)while 当…时候,而 (表示对比)
  While I stayed there, I met a friend of mine. (while后不可用瞬间动词)
  My pen is red while his is blue.
  (17)for 因为
  He was ill, for he didn't come. (结论是推断出来的)
  (18)since自从…
  I have lived here since my uncle left.
  (19)hardly… when 一…就
  I had hardly got to the station when the train left.
  (20)as far as 就… 来说
  As far as I know, that country is very small.
  You may walk as far as the lake. (一直走到湖那里)

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